EVENTS, birthdays and anniversaries for 11 July
National day of Mongolia
1533: Pope Clement VII excommunicated King Henry VIII.
1572: Sir Humphrey Gilbert landed in the Netherlands with a band of English volunteers to fight the Spanish.
1776: Captain Cook sailed from Portsmouth in the Resolution, accompanied by the Discovery, on his third and last expedition.
1810: Napoleonic Empire annexed Holland.
1859: The chime of Big Ben in the clock tower of the Houses of Parliament was heard for the first time.
1881: The “ghost-ship” Flying Dutchman was sighted at 4am 50 miles off the Cape of Good Hope, by the crew of HMS Inconstant.
1950: Puppets Andy Pandy, Teddy and Looby Loo first appeared on BBC television. The episodes were repeated for more than 25 years.
1962: American Fred Baldassare became first to swim the English Channel underwater with scuba equipment.
1963: Army in Ecuador ousted president Carlos Julio Arosemena, saying he was a Communist sympathiser.
1975: China’s great terracotta army was uncovered near the ancient capital of Xian. More than 6,000 life-sized warriors were made in about 206 BC to guard the tomb of the first emperor.
1979: America’s Skylab I returned to earth after 34,981 orbits since its launch on 14 May, 1973.
1990: Hundreds of thousands of miners in Ukraine held a one-day strike to protest against the policies of the Soviet government.
1994: A report said that women in Glasgow have the world’s highest rate of heart disease.
1995: Actor Hugh Grant was fined £750 by a Los Angeles court and put on probation for two years when he admitted lewd conduct with a prostitute.
1995: More than 8,000 Bosnian men and children (all Bosniaks) were killed by Serbian troops commanded by Ratko Mladic in Potocari near Srebrenica Bosnia and Herzegovina.
2006: 209 people were killed in a series of bomb attacks in Mumbai, India.
2007: Four suicide bomber refugees found guilty of plotting to detonate explosions on three Tube trains and a bus in London in 2005 were jailed for life and ordered to serve a minimum of 40 years. All the bombs failed to go off.
Suzanne Vega, singer-songwriter, 54; Giorgio Armani, fashion designer, 79; Nadeem Aslam, novelist, 47; Craig Charles, comedian, 49; John Kettley, weatherman, 61; Lil’ Kim, rapper, 38; Mark Lester, actor and singer, 55; Lord Levy, 69; Dean Richards, rugby player and coach, 50; Richie Sambora, rock guitarist (Bon Jovi), 54; Peter de Savary, businessman and yachtsman, 69; Kellie Shirley, actress, 32; Leon Spinks, former world heavyweight boxing champion, 60; John Stride, actor, 77.
Births: 1274 Robert the Bruce, King of Scots (at Turnberry); 1754 Thomas Bowdler, Scottish physician and publisher; 1767 John Quincy Adams, 6th United States president; 1862 Liza Lehmann, composer and singer; 1916 Reg Varney, actor); 1917 Yul Brynner, actor.
Deaths: 1937 George Gershwin, composer; 1941 Sir Arthur Evans, archaeologist; 1989 Lord Olivier, actor; 1992 Albert Pierrepoint, hangman; 2000 Right-Reverend Lord Runcie, Archbishop of Canterbury 1980-91; 2011 George Henry Hubert Lascelles KBE, 7th Earl of Harewood, artistic director of the Edinburgh Festival 1961-65.