Events, birthdays and anniversaries for 10 July
1579: The first Bible to be printed in Scotland was published.
1584: William of Orange was assassinated by Balthazar Gerard at instigation of Spain.
1645: Oliver Cromwell’s army defeated Royalists at Langport.
1810: British forces took Ile de Bourbon and Mauritius in Indian Ocean.
1900: Metro, the Paris underground railway and the work of Fulgence Bienvenüe, was opened.
1940: Battle of Britain began.
1943: Eighth Army and US 7th Army began invasion of Sicily.
1950: Soap rationing in Britain, started during the war, ended.
1951: Randolph Turpin became the first British boxer to win the world middleweight championship when he defeated American Sugar Ray Robinson at Earls Court, London.
1958: Parking meters introduced in England – in Mayfair, London.
1962: Telstar I, the world’s first television telecommunications satellite, was launched in America.
1976: Four mercenaries – three British and one American – were executed by firing squad in Angola.
1981: Copycat urban rioting emulating Brixton (3 April) and Toxteth (5 July), broke out in London, Birmingham, Preston, Hull and Wolverhampton.
1985: Two explosions sank the Greenpeace campaign ship Rainbow Warrior, in Auckland, New Zealand.
1990: Uefa, the European football governing body, unconditionally readmitted English clubs, except Liverpool, to European competition from which they had been banned after the Heysel Stadium riot in 1985.
1997: In London scientists reported the findings of the DNA analysis of a neanderthal skeleton which support the “out of Africa theory” of human evolution placing an “African Eve” at 100,000 to 200,000 years ago.
1998: The Diocese of Dallas agreed to pay $23.4m to nine former altar boys who claimed they were sexually abused by former priest Rudolph Kos.
2000: A leaking southern Nigerian petroleum pipeline exploded, killing about 250 villagers scavenging gasoline.
2002: At a Sotheby’s auction, Peter Paul Rubens’ painting The Massacre of the Innocents was sold for £49.5m to Lord Thomson.
2011: The last edition of the News of the World was published in the wake of phone-hacking allegations.
Virginia Wade, Wimbledon champion 1977 and commentator, 68; Winnie Ewing, MEP 1975-99 and MSP 1999-03, 84; Sir Thomas Farmer, founder of Kwik-Fit, 73; Lord Mackie of Benshie CBE, MP 1964-66, chairman, Scottish Liberal Party 1983-88, 94; John Motson OBE, sports commentator, 68; Gaby Roslin, presenter, 49; Mary Sandeman, Scottish singer, 65; John Simm, actor, 43; Doctor Gavin Strang, MP (1970-2010), 70; Neil Tennant, singer (Pet Shop Boys), 59.
Births: 1509 John Calvin (born Jean Cauvin), theologian; 1802 Robert Chambers, bookseller and publisher; 1830 Camille Pissarro, painter; 1834 James McNeill Whistler, etcher and painter; 1871 Marcel Proust, writer; 1917 Reg Smythe, cartoonist (“Andy Capp”); 1943 Arthur Ashe, tennis champion.
Deaths: 138AD Hadrian, Roman Emperor; 1099 El Cid, Spanish patriot; 1978 Joe Davis, snooker player; 1989 Tommy Trinder, comedian; 1998 Hammond Innes, novelist; 2003 Winston Graham, author.