Events, birthdays and anniversaries for 28 December
1520: Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan sailed through the strait later named after him and into the Pacific Ocean.
1660: The Royal Society was founded at a meeting in London of 12 scholars, including Sir Christopher Wren.
1666: Battle of Rullion Green and defeat of the Covenanters by Sir Thomas Dalyell.
1821: Panama declared itself independent of Spain and joined Republic of Colombia.
1885: British forces occupied Mandalay in Burma.
1905: Sinn Fein founded in Dublin.
1912: Albania declared independence.
1916: London experienced its first air raid.
1918: The Kaiser abdicated the crown of Prussia and Germany.
1922: Six former ministers of Greece were executed.
1934: Winston Churchill gave warning that weak defences could leave Britain “tortured into absolute subjection” in a war with Germany.
1937: General Franco began naval blockade of Spanish coast.
1943: The “Big Three” – Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin – met in Tehran to discuss post-war policy.
1960: Mauritania became independent Islamic republic.
1971: Jordan’s prime minister, Wasfi Tell, was assassinated at an Arab conference in Cairo.
1977: Rhodesia announced at least 1,200 deaths in raids against black nationalist guerrillas across border in Mozambique.
1987: South African Airways jet with 159 people aboard crashed in Indian Ocean near Mauritius.
1989: West German chancellor Helmut Kohl proposed a plan for the confederation of East and West Germany.
1990: Singapore’s prime minister Lee Kwan Yew stepped down after 31 years in power.
1994: Eight rebel MPs were stripped of the Conservative whip as prime minister John Major survived a vote of confidence on Europe.
1994: In Portage, Wisconsin, convicted serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer was clubbed to death by a fellow inmate in the Columbia Correctional Institution gymnasium.
2010: A body of UK and international doctors voted antibiotics the most important medical development of the past 50 years.
Karen Gillan, Scottish actress, 27; Berry Gordy, founder of Tamla Motown record label, 85; Fiona Armstrong, television presenter, 58; Alistair Darling, Labour politician, 61; Lord Macdonald, Chief of the Name and Arms of Macdonald, 67; Caitlin McClatchey, Scottish swimmer, 29; Dervla Murphy, author, 83; Randy Newman, singer and songwriter, 71; Judd Nelson, actor, 55; Ed Harris, actor/director, 64; Martin Clunes, actor, 53; Richard Osman, TV presenter/producer, 44; John Galliano, fashion designer, 54; Kriss Akabusi, former athlete, 56; Gavin Rae, Scottish footballer, 37; Armando Iannucci, Scottish writer, TV director and radio producer, 51.
Births: 1628 John Bunyan, author of Pilgrim’s Progress; 1820 Friedrich Engels, German socialist and associate of Karl Marx; 1904 Nancy Mitford CBE, novelist and journalist; 1908 Claude Lévi-Strauss, anthropologist.
Deaths: 1968 Enid Blyton, writer of children’s books; 1976 Rosalind Russell, actress; 1993 Kenneth Connor MBE, “Carry On” actor; 1993 Jerry Edmonton, drummer (Steppenwolf); 1994 Buster Edwards, Great Train Robber.