Events, birthdays and anniversaries for 23 June
National day of Luxembourg.
1611: Henry Hudson, navigator and searcher for Northwest Passage, was cast adrift in a small boat to die, with his son and several others, when his crew mutinied.
1757: The Battle of Plassey took place in Bengal, with victory for the British, under Robert Clive, over the Indian forces – so laying the foundations of the British Empire in India.
1823: George and Robert Stephenson opened their locomotive foundry in Forth Street, Newcastle upon Tyne.
1848: “June Days” insurrection began in France when Gen Louis Cavaignac suppressed Paris workmen in effort to close workshops and killed thousands.
1872: The first practical typewriter was patented by Christopher Sholes in Milwaukee, United States.
1894: 286 miners were killed in disaster at the Albion coal pit at Cilfynydd in South Wales.
1910: The Duke of Windsor (Edward VIII) became the Prince of Wales on his 16th birthday.
1912: Niagara Falls bridge collapsed, killing 47.
1914: The Royal Naval Air Service was formed.
1941: Germany invaded Soviet Union.
1951: Jaguar Cars won Le Mans 24-hour race for first time. It was the first British victory for 16 years.
1972: Provisional IRA announced conditional ceasefire in Northern Ireland conflict.
1973: Skylab 1 astronauts returned safely to Earth after record 28 days aboard first US orbiting space station.
1990: Hoverspeed Great Britain, the world’s biggest catamaran, crossed the Atlantic in a record three days, seven hours and 54 minutes to claim the Blue Riband Trophy.
1991: Archbishop Trevor Huddleston, a leading anti-apartheid activist, returned to South Africa for the first time in 35 years.
1994: It was announced that the royal yacht Britannia would be decommissioned in 1997 and possibly not replaced.
2006: Sir Sean Connery pulled out of an appearance at the Scottish Parliament after it was revealed that the presiding officer would ask him for his views on violence towards women.
2009: The Irish broadcaster Setanta Sports went into administration.
KT (Kate) Tunstall, St Andrews-born singer and songwriter, 39; Paul “Bonehead” Arthurs, rock musician (Oasis), 49; Bryan Brown, Australian actor, 67; Nicholas Cleobury, conductor, 64; Duffy, singer, 30; Lord Irvine of Lairg, QC, Lord Chancellor 1997-2003, 74; Frances McDormand, actress, 57; Colin Montgomerie, Scottish golfer, 51; Peter O’Malley, golfer, 49; Maggie Philbin, television and radio presenter, 59; Martin Rees, Baron Rees of Ludlow, astrophysicist, Astronomer Royal, 72; Anthony Thwaite OBE, poet and critic, 84; Zinedine Zidane, French World Cup-winning footballer, 42.
Births: 1763 Empress Josephine, wife of Napoleon; 1894 Alfred Charles Kinsey, sexologist; 1912 Alan Turing OBE, codebreaker; 1915 John Prebble, historian, novelist and playwright; 1920 Alex Eadie, Labour MP 1966-92; 1927 Bob Fosse, choreographer-director; 1940 Adam Faith, singer and actor.,
Deaths: AD79 Vespasian, Roman emperor; 1832 Sir James Hall, Edinburgh-born geologist; 1836 James Mill, philosopher; 2011 Peter Falk, actor.