Events, birthdays and anniversaries for 25 august
1609: Galileo Galilei demonstrated his first telescope to Venetian lawmakers.
1814: Washington DC was burned and White House destroyed by British forces.
1825: Uruguay declared its independence from Brazil.
1830: The Belgian Revolution begins.
1837: Henry William Crawford patented a process for producing galvanised iron.
1900: Writer Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, playing for MCC against London County, clean bowled WG Grace.
1910: Yellow Cab taxicab company was founded.
1916: The United States National Park Service was created.
1919: The world’s first scheduled air flights began, between London and Paris.
1928: Anfield’s famous Kop terracing at Liverpool’s football ground was opened. It was most likely named after the Battle of Spion Kop in the Boer War. The word “kopje” means small hill.
1933: The Diexi earthquake struck Mao County, Sichuan, China and killed 9,000 people.
1944: Paris is liberated by the Allies.
1950: United States president Harry Truman ordered the army to seize control of the nation’s railways to avert a strike.
1960: The 17th Olympic Games opened in Rome, at which Briton Anita Lonsbrough won gold in the 200 metre breaststroke. The light-heavyweight boxing gold medal was won by an American named Cassius Clay.
1964: Kenneth Kaunda elected Zambia’s first president.
1978: The Shroud of Turin went on show for the first time on the high altar at St John’s Cathedral in Turin.
1980: Zimbabwe joined the United Nations.
1985: Pop singer Michael Jackson paid £25 million for an ATV catalogue of music, which included copyright of 5,000 songs, many by the Beatles.
1985: A re-enactment of the Battle of Edgehill by the Sealed Knot Society turned into the “real thing”, and Warwick General Hospital filled up with costumed Cavaliers and Roundheads waiting for treatment of battle scars.
1989: The spacecraft Voyager, completing its 12-year voyage to Neptune, sent back pictures of Triton, its moon, and revealed two additional moons previously unknown to scientists.
1991: Belarus declared its independence from the Soviet Union.
1997: Egon Krenz, the former East German leader, was convicted of a shoot-to-kill policy at the Berlin Wall.
2009: Tobacco use was costing the British economy £5 billion a year, according to research.
2010: A woman who was caught on CCTV dropping an unsuspecting cat into a wheelie bin, sparking a national outcry, said she was “profoundly sorry” for the stunt.
Martin Amis, British author, 65; Pamela Armstrong, British television presenter, 63; Lord Black of Crossharbour KSG, former Daily Telegraph proprietor, 70; Tim Burton, American film director, 56; Sir Sean Connery, Edinburgh-born film actor, 84; Elvis Costello (Declan McManus), pop singer, 60; Billy Ray Cyrus, singer, 53; Frederick Forsyth CBE, novelist, 76; Anthony Heald, American actor, 70; Howard Jacobson, Man Booker Prize-winning British novelist and critic, 72; Blake Lively, American actress, 27; John Savage, American actor, 65; Claudia Schiffer, model and actress, 44; Wayne Shorter, American jazz saxophonist, 81; Gene Simmons, rock musician (Kiss), 65; Tom Skerritt, American actor, 81; Keith Tippett, British jazz pianist, 67; Blair Underwood, American actor, 50; Lord Wallace of Tankerness, deputy first minister 1999-2005, MP 1983-2001, 60; Joanne Whalley, actress, 50; Felix da Housecat (Felix Stallings junior), DJ and record producer, 43.
Births: 1530 Ivan the Terrible, the first Tsar of Russia; 1699 Charles Etienne Camus, mathematician; 1819 Allan Pinkerton, Glasgow-born founder of the Chicago-based detective agency that bears his name; 1836 Bret Harte, American writer and American Consul in Glasgow; 1880 Robert Stolz, Austrian composer and conductor; 1918 Leonard Bernstein, composer-conductor; 1918 Richard Greene, actor; 1923 Dorothy Dunnett, novelist and painter; 1927 Althea Gibson, Wimbledon and United States tennis champion.
Deaths: 683 St Ebba, Abbess of Coldingham, and of St Abb’s Head; 1688 Sir Henry Morgan, buccaneer; 1776 David Hume, philosopher and historian; 1819 James Watt, engineer and inventor; 1867 Michael Faraday, physicist and founder of the science of electromagnetism; 1900 Friedrich Nietzsche, philosopher; 1936 Grigori Zinoviev, Russian revolutionary (executed); 2012 Professor Neil Armstrong, first man to walk on the Moon, 20 July, 1969.