On this day: King Charles I | Hitler | Apartheid | Bloody Sunday | Andy Murray
Events, anniversaries and deaths for 30 January
1647: Scots handed over King Charles I to parliamentary forces.
1790: The first purpose-built lifeboat, The Original, launched at South Shields on the River Tyne.
1840: Emperor of China forbade all trade with Britain.
1858: The Hallé Orchestra, Manchester, performed its first public concert.
1889: Crown Prince Archduke Rudolf of Austria and his lover, Baroness Marie Vetsera, 17, were found dead at the royal hunting lodge of Mayerling, near Vienna. The apparent murder-suicide led to a cultural reappraisal in the empire which gave birth to the Secessionist movement.
1902: Britain signed treaty with Japan providing for independence of China and Korea.
1933: Adolf Hitler was appointed German chancellor by president Paul von Hindenburg.
1943: Soviets destroyed German army south-west of Stalingrad.
1951: Film star Elizabeth Taylor, 19, divorced her first husband, Nicky Hilton, in Los Angeles.
1957: United Nations called on South Africa to reconsider its apartheid policy.
1964: South Vietnamese General Nguyen Khanh seized power in coup in Saigon.
1965: State funeral of Sir Winston Churchill. Big Ben was silenced as Britain’s greatest wartime leader was taken for burial – in his family plot in Bladon churchyard – in a Battle of Britain Class locomotive 34051, named after him.
1968: Vietcong captured the United States embassy in Saigon.
1970: Two students were killed and more than 200 people wounded as demonstrators stormed the presidential palace in Philippine capital of Manila.
1972: Bloody Sunday in Londonderry, Northern Ireland, when 13 protest marchers were killed when soldiers opened fire.
1979: White Rhodesians approved new constitution to give blacks eventual control.
1991: American and Iraqi troops clashed in first ground battle of Gulf war at Khafji, as Iraqi tanks probed Kuwait-Saudi border.
1992: Estate agent Stephanie Slater was released after being held captive for eight days by a kidnapper. A £175,000 ransom was paid.
1996: Islanders on Eigg called on their landlord, German artist Marlin Eckhard Maruma, to fulfil his promise to invest £15 million in the island or leave.
2000: Off the coast of Ivory Coast, Kenya Airways Flight 431 crashed into the Atlantic Ocean, killing 169 people.
2011: Scottish tennis player Andy Murray lost his third grand slam final, in Australia in straight sets to Novak Djokovic.
Christian Bale, actor, 39; Phil Collins, rock singer and drummer, writer, and actor, 62; Gene Hackman, actor, 83; Lord Mackay of Drumadoon, QC, Senator of the College of Justice in Scotland, Lord Advocate 1995-97, 67; Dorothy Malone, actress, 88; Hal Prince, musicals director and producer, 85; Vanessa Redgrave CBE, actress, 76; Boris Spassky, Soviet-French chess grandmaster, 76; Derek White, rugby player, 54.
Births: 1882 Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 32nd US president; 1913 Percy Thrower, gardener and broadcaster.
Deaths: 1649 Charles I (beheaded); 1948 Mahatma Gandhi, Indian leader (assassinated); 1948 Orville Wright, flight pioneer; 1963 Francis-Jean-Marcel Poulenc, composer and pianist; 1999 Mick McGahey, miners’ leader; 2001 John Prebble, historian, novelist and playwright; 2011 John Barry OBE, film music composer.
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Weather for Edinburgh
Wednesday 19 June 2013
Temperature: 9 C to 18 C
Wind Speed: 16 mph
Wind direction: West
Temperature: 12 C to 20 C
Wind Speed: 8 mph
Wind direction: North east