In pictures: Scotland’s evolving police force

A policeman in shirt sleeves on duty in Princes Street, Edinburgh in the summer of 1965
A policeman in shirt sleeves on duty in Princes Street, Edinburgh in the summer of 1965
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SCOTLAND’s national police force will have a new chief constable following the confirmation today that Phil Gormley will succeed Sir Stephen House.

Gormley, a former deputy director of the National Crime Agency, will head the organisation formed in 2013 when the nation’s eight regional constabularies were merged.

The Edinburgh City Police annual inspection in Forrest Road Drill Hall in November 1962. Thomas Renfrew chats to a policeman with his Alsatian police dog

The Edinburgh City Police annual inspection in Forrest Road Drill Hall in November 1962. Thomas Renfrew chats to a policeman with his Alsatian police dog

The new CC will face several issues requiring his attention.

Police Scotland has faced severe criticism over its response to an M9 crash in July, in which John Yuill and his partner Lamara Bell died, after it took three days for officers to respond to reports.

The policy of arming officers to attend routine incidents has also been questioned.

Policing north of the border has evolved considerably throughout the 20th century.

Firearms which were handed into the Central Police HQ in Glasgow during an amnesty in 1965

Firearms which were handed into the Central Police HQ in Glasgow during an amnesty in 1965

Prior to 2013, the most significant reorganisation occurred in 1975 when the eight regional forces were created.

They replaced numerous smaller city and county constabularies that had been founded at various points throughout the 19th century onwards.

Earlier this year, the 100th anniversary of the first female police officers to serve in Scotland was celebrated.

In 1915, Emily Miller joined City of Glasgow Police and Jean Thomas joined Dundee City Police.

Policewoman Sheila Johnstone on point duty at Haymarket in 1962.

Policewoman Sheila Johnstone on point duty at Haymarket in 1962.

While largely accepted during the war years - women were filling a variety of traditionally male jobs as men were called to fight - it proved controversial in peace time.

In 1922, following weeks of press speculation, the Chief Constable of Dundee City was forced to publicly deny he had a woman working as a constable.

The officer was being economical with the truth. There was indeed a female constable serving at that time, although it would be another two years before her or other women coppers were granted full power of arrest.

Today, around 40 per cent of all new recruits to the national Police Scotland constabulary are female, representing a significant increase compared 20 or 30 years ago.

Mounted police keep an eye on the crowds at Easter Road after a 'break in' (the gates had been closed 15 minutes before the start) at an Edinburgh derby in January 1950. A record 65,000 crowd saw the game between Hibs and Hearts

Mounted police keep an eye on the crowds at Easter Road after a 'break in' (the gates had been closed 15 minutes before the start) at an Edinburgh derby in January 1950. A record 65,000 crowd saw the game between Hibs and Hearts

Until 1968, female police officers were required to quit the force when they married.

Even as late as the 1980s, there were certain aspects of policing that remained off-limits to ladies.

They were not allowed to patrol after dark due to safety fears, for example, and could not become full members of the Criminal Investigation or dog-handling departments.

Police Constable Dow is carried off in a stretcher after being hit by a bottle during the Rangers v Clyde match in August 1966

Police Constable Dow is carried off in a stretcher after being hit by a bottle during the Rangers v Clyde match in August 1966

Police Constable Neil Ewart tries out a newly-issued 6" x 3" personal radio in 1966

Police Constable Neil Ewart tries out a newly-issued 6" x 3" personal radio in 1966

An officer stands guard at Barrie's Close, Edinburgh, in 2010 following a serious assault in the vicinity

An officer stands guard at Barrie's Close, Edinburgh, in 2010 following a serious assault in the vicinity

Police officers and trading standards officers in Cumbernauld shopping centre to launch a 2015 public campaign against counterfeited goods

Police officers and trading standards officers in Cumbernauld shopping centre to launch a 2015 public campaign against counterfeited goods

Helen Angus, who served as a policewomen in Grangemouth from 1959 to 1964, joins serving officers PC Kirstine Gibbs (left) PC Sarah Norton. Picture: Michael Gillen

Helen Angus, who served as a policewomen in Grangemouth from 1959 to 1964, joins serving officers PC Kirstine Gibbs (left) PC Sarah Norton. Picture: Michael Gillen